Integrated View of Second

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Language Acquisition




There are many approaches to second language acquisition. The table below gives suggestions for approaches that are relevant for different levels of language proficiency.

An Integrated View of Second Language Acquisition

Stage 1:
Apperceived Input

Language that a learner is exposed to and notices. (Gass & Selinker, 2001)
Approaches: The Natural Approach, TPR, The Affective Filter Hypothesis, Innatist Approach

Explanation: In this stage of language acquisition, students are receiving language. They are not yet able, or they choose not to use the target language. Students in this stage should be immersed in the target language, but may be in a silent period. They are hearing and listening to the new language and trying to connect it to something familiar. The teacher should do lots of modeling for students in this stage. Students should be made to feel safe and secure in their environments with no pressure to speak. Students may be able to point to items, follow 1-2 step directions, and match items and pictures. Non-verbal communication is their main way of communicating in this stage.
Materials and Resources Needed:
ü visuals
ü picture books
ü realia
ü books on cd or tape
ü puppets
ü storytelling props
ü puzzles
ü computer games
ü manipulatives
ü songs
ü labels (with pictures and words) on classroom items
Stage 2: Comprehended Input

Language that a learner understands. (Gass & Selinker, 2001)
Approaches: The Natural Approach, TPR, Interactionist Approach, Structural/Behavioral Approach,

Explanation:
Students in this stage of language acquisition are beginning to understand some of the target language. They may or may not be speaking yet, but they are able to communicate non-verbally, if not verbally. These students may give one-two word responses, or short phrases. Small group work and cooperative learning groups are a great strategy to use with students in this stage. Modeling is still very important for students in this stage. Students may be able to label and match items, make lists, follow more in-depth commands, and produce some words.
Materials and Resources Needed:
ü visuals
ü picture books
ü realia
ü books on cd or tape
ü puppets
ü storytelling props
ü puzzles
ü computer games
ü manipulatives
ü anchor charts for following directions
ü picture/word cards for matching
ü pocket chart activities
ü sequencing picture cards
Stage 3: Comprehended Integration

Language that is stored for later use. (Gass, 1997)
Approaches: The Natural Approach, Typological Approach, Communicative Approach


Explanation:
Students in this stage of language acquisition are beginning to use the target language for learning activities. These students may be able to produce phrases and simple sentences, compare and contrast stories, and use descriptive words in simple terms. Interaction within the target language is appropriate for these students. Small group learning in learning centers or work jobs is beneficial. During this type of interaction, students are hearing as well as producing the target language. Students may also be able to work independently matching words to pictures, write or draw about familiar topics, and participate in discussions that relate to prior experiences. They can help with interactive and shared writing lessons and use graphic organizers. They may also be able to answer more in depth questions about stories for comprehension.
Materials and Resources Needed:
ü visuals
ü picture books
ü different versions of the same story
ü puppets
ü storytelling props
ü puzzles
ü computer games
ü manipulatives
ü anchor charts for following directions
ü picture/word cards for matching
ü KWL charts
ü Thinking Maps
ü Kagan Structures
http://tqe.siu.edu/473/documents/PDF/strats/kagan_strats.pdf
ü board games
ü character, setting, and plot picture/word cards
ü online computer games for learning grammar
http://www.marks-english-school.com/games.html
Stage 4: Output
Language that a student produces at their level of English language competency with peers. (Haynes, 1998)
Approaches: The Natural Approach, Communicative Approach, Lexical Approach, Interactionist Approach

Explanation:
Students in this stage of language acquisition have a good grasp of the target language. They are beginning to form CALP (cognitive academic language proficiency). They are able to carry on conversations, although they may still have grammatical errors in sentences. Pronunciation of words in the target language is still forming. Communicating and interacting with native speakers in the target language helps these learners with language skills. They are able to write stories on given topics, as well as use graphic organizers and participate in discussions during shared and guided reading. Grammar lessons, concepts about print, and syntax lessons are appropriate for these students in a small group setting.
Materials and Resources Needed:
ü grade level texts
ü picture books
ü fiction and non-fiction books
ü word banks
ü vocabulary charts
ü picture dictionaries
ü graphic organizers
ü story sequence cards
ü role play props
ü research books and opportunities
ü leveled books for Guided Reading
ü various graphic organizers for writing
Suggestions and Tips for Teachers
  • Know the language level of your students and what characteristic is common at each level.
  • Create a classroom environment that is safe and secure for all students.
  • Celebrate diversity in your classroom.
  • Use games and activities that involve partners and group work.
  • Encourage your students to be risk-takers, but do not push them to speak.
  • Allow students time to talk in L1 and L2.
  • Reduce “teacher talk” and increase “student talk”.
Approaches for Beginners / Limited English Proficiency
The Natural Approach, TPR, Interactionist Approach, Structural/Behavioral Approach


Approaches for Moderate English Proficiency
The Natural Approach, Typological Approach, Communicative Approach, Lexical Approach, Interactionist Approach

Approaches for Younger ESL Student
The Natural Approach, TPR
**http://www.teacherjoe.us/TeachersTPR.html**


Approaches for Middle School
Typological Approach, Communicative Approach, Interactionist Approach, Lexical Approach


Approaches for High School
Typological Approach, Communicative Approach, Interactionist Approach, Lexical Approach
Materials and Resources Needed:
ü visuals
ü picture books
ü realia
ü books on cd or tape
ü puppets
ü storytelling props
ü puzzles
ü computer games
ü manipulatives
ü songs
ü anchor charts for following directions
ü picture/word cards for matching
ü pocket chart activities
ü kwl charts
ü Thinking Maps
ü Kagan Structures
ü grade level texts
ü fiction and non-fiction books
ü word banks
ü vocabulary charts
ü picture dictionaries
ü graphic organizers
ü story sequence cards
ü role play props
ü research books and opportunities


Resources:
Gass, S., & Selinker, L. (2001). Second language acquisition, an introductory course. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Gass, S. (1997). Input, interaction, and the second language learner. Retrieved from http://www.cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp/information/tesl-ej/ej09/r14.html
Hands on English. (1994). 40 helpful hints & tips for making your esl teaching easier and more fun!. Retrieved from http://www.handsonenglish.com/40tips.html
Haynes, J. (1998). Comprehensible input and output. Retrieved from http://www.everythingesl.net/inservices/comprehensible_input_output_70140.php.



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dana.westveer@mnps.org

or at 615-847-7317, ext, 100